[ans] ANS-181 AMSAT News Service Weekly Bulletin June 30, 2019

Frank Karnauskas n1uw at gokarns.com
Sun Jun 30 02:43:41 UTC 2019


AMSAT NEWS SERVICE
ANS-181


The AMSAT News Service bulletins are a free, weekly news and 
information service of AMSAT North America, The Radio
Amateur Satellite Corporation.  ANS publishes news related to Amateur
Radio in space including reports on the activities of a worldwide
group of Amateur Radio operators who share an active interest in 
designing, building, launching and communicating through analog and
digital Amateur Radio satellites.

The news feed on http://amsat.org publishes news of Amateur Radio 
in space as soon as our volunteers can post it.

Please send any amateur satellite news or reports to:
ans-editor at amsat dot org.

In this edition:

* AO-85 Update: Do Not Access While in Eclipse
* Candidates for the AMSAT Board of Directors Announced
* PSAT Successfully Launched on Falcon Heavy STP-2
* Update: PSAT2 is coming to Northern Latitudes!
* Updated TLE's and Analysis Tools for BIRDS-3
* Chinese Lunar Satellite DSLWP-B and the July 2 Solar Eclipse
* Thailand JAISAT-1 Satellite to Launch on July 5, 2019
* ARISS International Delegates Meet in Montreal
* European Astro Pi Challenge Winners Announced
* New Release of G0KLA Tracker
* Upcoming Satellite Operations
* ARISS News
* Satellite Shorts from All Over


SB SAT @ AMSAT $ANS-181.01
ANS-181 AMSAT News Service Weekly Bulletins

AMSAT News Service Bulletin 181.01
>From AMSAT HQ KENSINGTON, MD.
jUNE 30, 2019
To All RADIO AMATEURS
BID: $ANS-181.01


AO-85 Update: Do Not Access While in Eclipse

The auto Safe mode was disabled on June 24 and the transponder was 
turned on.  A few QSOs were made to verify that it would drop with 
inactivity.

Currently, the battery voltage is very low and it looks like a cell 
is prepared to give up the ghost.  Please do not use the satellite 
while it is in eclipse, even if you hear it.  Operations is not sure 
what will be usable if and when this cell fails completely.

In the meantime, please send reports to the AMSAT-BB.  THey are 
welcome and helpful.

[ANS thanks Drew Glasbrenner, KO4MA for the above information.]

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Candidates for the AMSAT Board of Directors Announced

The corrected list of 2019 candidates, in alphabetical order by last
name are:

Jerry Buxton, N0JY
Howard (Howie) Defelice, AB2S
Drew Glasbrenner, KO4MA
Jeff Johns, WE4B
Brennan Price, N4QX
Patrick Stoddard, WD9EWK
Paul Stoetzer, N8HM
Michelle Thompson, W5NYV

This year AMSAT membership will select four candidates to the Board 
of Directors. The four candidates receiving the highest number of 
votes will be seated as voting members of the Board of Directors. Two
alternate directors will be selected based on the next highest number
of votes received.

Ballots will be mailed to the AMSAT membership by July 15, 2019.

The election closes September 15, 2019.

[ANS thanks Clayton L. Coleman, W5PFG, AMSAT Secretary for the above 
information.]

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New 2019 AMSAT Apparel Now Available on the Web

Didn't make it to Hamvention but you want the latest in AMSAT
haberdashery? The new 2019 tee-shirts, polo shirts and hats are now 
available in the AMSAT online store.  Browse the styles and sizes 
online and put your order in today at

https://www.amsat.org/product-category/amsat-apparel/

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PSAT Successfully Launched on Falcon Heavy STP-2

PSAT2 was successfully Launched at 0630Z on June 25, 2019 on the
Falcon Heavy STP-2 mission into a 28 degree elliptical orbit with 
apogee at 860 km  and perigee at 300 km.  The 28 degree inclination 
makes it difficult to work it over most of Europe but the 
significant difference in apogee and perigee can make a 15 degree or 
so elevation difference on the horizon.  When apogee circulates to 
be over the northern hemisphere,then more northern stations can 
work it.  When Perigee is over the
northern hemisphere, it can only be seen in Spain and Italy latitudes 
in Europe, and only mid latitudes in the USA.

This changing apogee dynamic will move earlier each day and two weeks
later, will have reversed, and so forth on a monthly cycle or so. 
Another interesting thing about the orbit is that it is almost time
synchronous; meaning that a pass will occur almost the same time 
every day (though five minutes earlier).  But then an earlier orbit 
will appear an hour and a half earlier every other day.  This makes 
it very easy to do mobile/portable operations without any computer 
once you hear one pass.

Operating Modes 
PSAT2 consists of a number of exciting and unique Amateur Radio 
Communications transponders:

 - First is a newer PSK31 29 MHz uplink/UHF FM downlink from Brno 
   University following on to the original on PSAT.
 - Second is a Brno SSTV camera that dowlinks in the same UHF FM 
   waterfall as the PSK31 users.
 - Third is a DTMF grid square uplink and voice/APRS downlink for 
   grid position reporting.
 - Fourth is DTMF Text messaging (APRStt).
 - Fifth is APRS text messages up and voice down.
 - Sixth is a conventional APRS digipeater that will join a number of 
   sister APRS Amateur Satellite transponders.

Currently the HF/UHF PSK31 and SSTV modes are enabled and open to
users.
But the VHF modes have not been enabled for users and users are
requested
to keep the uplink clear during on-orbit testing.

PSAT2 is designed for maximum orbit life compared to other similar
sized
cubesats because it is flying with the maxzimum allowable mass. 
Almost a
kilogram of lead ballast about 2cm x 8cm x 8cm located in the center
of
the cubesat constitutes almost HALF the satellite's mass to give it
a high
ballistic coefficient to last longer on orbit.

One of the most interesting and unique features of PSAT2 is the new 
APRStt (Touchtone) DTMF/voice transponder which lets everyone do APRS 
using any radio with DTMF keypad, not just those with APRS radios. 
There have been several iterations of the APRStt system in APRS over 
the years since 2001, but this application will be new in space and 
will help introduce everyone to this unique alternate APRS 
capability for use with ANY radio. 

Operating Frequencies
 - APRS Up/Down: 145.825 1200 baud APRS (like ISS,  PSAT, AISAT-1)
 - DTMF Uplink: 145.980 MHz (Voice confirmation down on 145.825 MHz)
 - PSK31 Downlink: 435.350 MHz +/- 5 kHz FM (300 mw)
 - PSK31 Uplink: 29.4815 MHz PSK31 SSB (25 W and omni vertical
typical)

PSAT2 Digipeater Aliases
To join the existing APRS satellites on orbit and operate as a 
seamless constellation, PSAT2 supports the same APRSAT and ARISS 
generic aliases as the original PCSAT (NO44) PSAT and the packet 
system on the ISS so that users do not have to change any 
parameters when using any of these three APRS transponders.

Complete PSAT-2 information is available at:
http://aprs.org/psat2.html

The PSAT2 User Manual is available for download at: 
aprs.org/PSAT2/USER-Operations-Manual.doc

[ANS thanks Bob Bruninga, WB4APR for the above information.]

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Update: PSAT2 is coming to Northern Latitudes!

After reviewing the orbit, it is somewhat time synchronous, meaning 
each orbit time (at mid northern latitudes) is just 5 minutes later 
each night.  But then a NEW earlier orbit appears 90 minutes earlier 
every other day.

So, by the 4th of July, PSAT2 first pass will be as early as 4 PM 
local time in the Northern Hemisphere mid latitudes.

And, the apogee moves rapidly.  In just two weeks, apogee will be 
over the northern hemisphere giving higher latitudes much better 
access.  At launch it was the middle of the night and perigee was in 
the Northern hemisphere making it only visible for lower latitudes.

So, things will improve for Northern Hemisphere... then two weeks
get worse, etc.

24 Hour telemetry plots (links to FINDU.COM) are now available on at
http://aprs.org/psat2.html.

[ANS thanks Bob Bruninga, WB4APR for the above information.]

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Updated TLE's and Analysis Tools for BIRDS-3

The following TLE information was posted on June 19, 2019.

RAAVANA-1
1 44329U 98067QE 19174.93024453 .00004092 00000-0 74305-4 0 9992 2 
44329 51.6418 327.7999 0007880 104.0563 256.1303 15.52018847 1076 0

UGUISU
1 44330U 98067QF 19175.44552474 .00003960 00000-0 72238-4 0 9996 2 
44330 51.6420 325.2414 0007814 104.7507 255.4350 15.51987013 113

NEPALISAT-1
1 44331U 98067QG 19174.86570669 .00004256 00000-0 76869-4 0 9991 2 
44331 51.6420 328.1190 0007880 104.9615 255.2247 15.52054261 1052 0 

Also, the CW Analysis Software has been updated to Version 2.  This
version includes an Excel file that allows decoding raw CW data and
saving the results.

[ANS thanks the BIRDS-3 Project for the above information.]

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Chinese Lunar Satellite DSLWP-B and the July 2 Solar Eclipse

On July 2 there will be a total solar eclipse that can be observed 
from parts of the Pacific Ocean, Chile and Argentina.  This provides 
an opportunity to image the eclipse with the Chinese lunar orbiting 
Amateur Radio satellite Lunar-OSCAR 94 (aka DSLWP-B).  An attempt 
will be made to image the eclipse with the Inory eye camera on-
board, where both the Moon and Earth should appear in the images.

The main interest is to photograph the shadow of the Moon on the 
surface of the Earth. The camera doesn’t have a large resolution and 
the Earth will look small in the image, but it will be possible to 
distinguish the shadow clearly.

Because the satellite aims its solar panel towards the sun, the 
camera on-board DSLWP-B is always pointing away from the Sun.  
Since DSLWP-B orbits the Moon, the Earth will always be in the center 
of the camera field of view during a solar eclipse. However, it 
might happen that the Moon is between the satellite and the Earth 
thus hiding the view of the Earth. 

To see the plans for the attempt see
https://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-eclipse and
https://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-eclipse-times

[ANS thanks Nico Janssen, PA0DLO for the above information.]

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Thailand JAISAT-1 Satellite to Launch July 5, 2019

The Radio Amateur Society of Thailand (RAST) has announced that 
JAISAT-1 is scheduled for launch on July 5, 2019 by a Soyuz 2.1 
rocket at 05:41 UTC.  JAISAT-1 will ride with a Meteor-M N2-2 
meteorology satellite along with a total of 34 satellites from 
twelve countries. 

The telemetry downlink is 435.325 MHz and the telemetry format is 
4k8 GMSK Mobitex (CMX990 Mobitex format).  The telemetry format is 
detailed at https://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-JAISAT-telfmt.

Signals in the same format can be found with the D-STAR ONE Sparrow 
and D-STAR ONE iSAT satellites.  Information on these satellites and 
the decoding software download can be found at

 - http://dk3wn.info/blog/satelliten/d-star-one/
 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UAjPOJDbHdA
 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rm_NS3Prz9U
 - http://uz7.ho.ua/packetradio.htm
 - http://www.dk3wn.info/files/dstar_one.zip

All Amateur Radio operators receiving signals from JAISAT-1 are asked 
to email data to jaisatonetele at gmail.com.  The Radio Amateur Society 
of Thailand will have a SWL card to confirm reception.

Also of interest are videos of the satellites' installation to the 
Soyuz fairing at
 - https://www.roscosmos.ru/26486/  
 - https://www.roscosmos.ru/26491/ 
 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klXEGKKTlFs) and
 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcUhJMU4mHA&t=10s

[ANS thanks Tanan Rangseeprom, HS1JAN, JAISAT-1 Project Manager for 
the above information.]

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ARISS International Delegates Meet in Montreal

This week, ARISS held it's 2019 ARISS International Face-to Face 
Meeting of international delegates in Montreal, Canada. During the 
sessions, Kenwood software manager, Shin Aota presented two Kenwood 
TM-D710GA transceivers to ARISS Russia delegate Sergey Samburov. A 
TM-D710GA will be used to replace aging amateur radio equipment on 
board the International Space Station. 

For several weeks, these radios have undergone detailed qualification 
testing followed by software configuration and verification. With 
today's transfer of the radios to ARISS Russia, we are one step 
closer to an enhanced Amateur Radio system on board the ISS 
supporting various operations such as SSTV, voice communication, 
APRS and a variety of experiments. 
Dave, AA4KN 

[ANS thanks Dave Jordan, AA4KN ARISS Public Relations for the above 
information.]

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European Astro Pi Challenge Winners Announced

Two Raspberry Pi computers, Astro Pi units Ed and Izzy have called 
the International Space Station home since 2016.  ESA Education runs 
the European Astro Pi Challenge which allows students to conduct 
scientific investigations in space, by writing computer programs.

A record-breaking number of more than 15000 people, from all 22 ESA 
Member States as well as Canada, Slovenia, and Malta, took part in 
this year’s challenge across both Mission Space Lab and Mission Zero.

After designing their own scientific investigations and having their 
programs run aboard the International Space Station, the Mission 
Space Lab teams spent their time analysing the data they received 
back from the ISS. To complete the challenge, they had to write a 
short scientific report discussing their results and highlighting 
the conclusions of their experiments. We were very impressed by the 
quality of the reports, which showed a high level of scientific merit.

the Astro Pi jury has now selected eleven winning teams, as well as 
highly commending four additional teams. The eleven winning teams 
won the chance to join an exclusive video call with ESA astronaut 
Frank De Winne, head of the European Astronaut Centre in Germany 
where astronauts train for their missions. Each team had the once-in-
a-lifetime chance to ask Frank about his life as an astronaut.

For complete information including the names of the winners see
http://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-Astro-Pi

[ANS thanks RaspberryPi.org for the above information.]

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New Release of G0KLA Tracker

Chris Thompson, G0KLA/AC2CZ has released version 1.01a of the G0KLA 
Satellite tracker.  This version has a few tweaks most requested by 
users:

 - Key display settings can be changed on the main window from a set 
   of icons bottom left. e.g. showing spacecraft in eclipse vs sun.

 - Horizontal lines for 30 and 60 degrees can be displayed.

 - Horizontal lines for all labels on the vertical axis can be 
   displayed.

 - Time labels have a slightly more sensible gap between them 
   (e.g. 15 minutes) rather than a random amount that fit in the 
   window (such as 13 minutes).

 - Past minutes can now be as short as 10 minutes, although a 
   longer period can be selected.

The downloads are available at
 - http://www.g0kla.com/klatrack/KlaTrack_1.01a_windows.zip
 - http://www.g0kla.com/klatrack/KlaTrack_1.01a_linux.tar.gz
 - http://www.g0kla.com/klatrack/KlaTrack_1.01a_mac.tar.gz

[ANS thanks Chris Thompson, G0KLA/AC2CZ for the above information.]

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Upcoming Satellite Operations

Hawaii (BK29, BL20) – June 27 to July 8, 2019
Mark, N8MH will be operating a bit as N8MH/KH6 June 27-July 3 from 
BK29 and July 5-8 from BL20, FM and linears.  Possibility of other 
grids once there. Watch Mark’s Twitter feed: https://twitter.com/N8MH

Mini-Route 66 Rove (DM94/95, EM05/15, EM14, EM23/24) June 28 – 
July 5, 2019
John, AB5SS, will be driving east from DM85 on a mini-Route 66 trip 
starting June 28, staying/passing through DM95/94, EM05/15, stopping 
in EM14 for July 2-4th, then head home thru EM24/23 on July 5th. 
Operating holiday-style, as family allows, posting activations to 
Twitter. https://twitter.com/TxRadioGeek

South Dakota (EN04, EN05) – July 2-3, 2019
Lucky for us, Mitch, AD0HJ, will be stopping at the EN04/05 gridline 
from July 2nd 22:37z to July 3rd 13:27z,  on his way to Iowa.  Mitch 
will working the FM Satellites (SO-50, AO-91, AO-92). Check Mitch’s 
Twitter feed.  https://twitter.com/AD0HJ

Wabakimi Provincial Park (EO50) – July 4-10, 2019
Fred, VE3FAL, is heading off to Wabakimi Provincial Park 
July 4th-10th and will activate EO50 via FM satellites. Keep an eye 
on Fred’s Twitter feed. https://twitter.com/Fred_VE3FAL

Iceland (HP93, HP94, HP95, IP03, IP05, IP13, IP14, IP15, IP24, IP25, 
IP35) – July 13-19, 2019
Adam, K0FFY, is taking his family (and his radios) to Iceland.  He’ll 
be staying in HP95 on July 13, IP15 on July 14-15, IP25 on July 16, 
IP03 on July 17-18, and HP94 on July 19. In total, he’ll be passing 
through HP93, HP94, HP95, IP03, IP05, IP13, IP14, IP15, IP24, IP25, 
and IP35. There’s a lot to see, so passes will be best effort and 
announced on Twitter shortly prior.  https://twitter.com/K0FFY_Radio

CY9 St. Paul Island (AO47) – July 31 to August 8, 2019
CY9C will be on St. Paul Island July 31st through August 8th.  This 
is an all bands/mode dxpedition, with EME and Sats as well.  More 
info available at http://cy9c.com/index.html.

Washington Invasion (CN96/96 & DN06/07/17/17) – August 9-10, 2019
Casey, KI7UNJ, will be heading North to invade the State of 
Washington, August 9th and 10th. Keep an eye on Casey’s Twitter feed 
for specific pass announcements. https://twitter.com/KI7UNJ

St Pierre et Miquelon (GN16) – August 10-18, 2019
A DXpedition is planned to St Pierre et Miquelon, August 10th through 
the 18th. The team will operate as T05M will from Ile aux Marins on 
6-160M, but there is a possibility of some FM Satellites. Keep an eye 
on their website for updates. http://fp2019.net/

[ANS thanks Robert Bankston, KE4AL for the above information.]

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ARISS News

+ Completed ARISS Contacts

Traverse Area District Library, Traverse City, MI, direct via W8TCM
The ISS callsign was NA1SS
The scheduled astronaut was Nick Hague KG5TMV
Contact was successful: Fri 2019-06-28 14:02:16 UTC

Watch the contact at 
https://m.youtube.com/channel/UCVyQOrBooJxzLFNGiyz9i2w


+ Upcoming ARISS Contacts

Santa Barbara Public Library, Santa Barbara, CA, direct via K6TZ
The ISS callsign is presently scheduled to be NA1SS
The scheduled astronaut is Nick Hague KG5TMV
Contact is go for Option #2: Wed 2019-07-03 17:54:19 UTC 49 deg 

(Note: A local newspaper article on the upcoming event can be read 
at http://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-Santa-Barbara.


+ ARISS Mentors Honored

ARISS congratulates the following mentors who have now mentored 
over 100 schools:
 
 - Satoshi 7M3TJZ with 135
 - Francesco IKØWGF with 132
 - Gaston ON4WF with 123
 - Sergey RV3DR with 118

[ANS thanks Charlie Sufana, AJ9N for the above information.]

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Satellite Shorts from All Over

+ May/June Apogee View Now Online

Read AMSAT President Joe Spier's, K6WAO comments in the latest Apogee 
View now on the AMSAT website.  Joe highlights the events of the 2019 
Hamvention and other happenings in the world of Amateur Radio 
satellites.  Read Joe's comments at 
https://www.amsat.org/apogeeview/.

+ President Joe Spier Highlights Oscar Park at Hamvention 2019

Chip Sufitchi, N2YO recorded a video tour of Hamvention 2019 for the 
radioamator.ro website in Romania. You can see Joe, K6WAO provide a 
three-minute tour of the satellites featured in AMSAT's OSCAR park. 
Joe's tour begins at 45:45 into the video.

[ANS thanks Chip Sufitchi, N2YO for the above information.]


+ AMSAT's Upcoming Satellite Operations

There is a lot of great activations happening this Summer.  Be sure 
to keep an eye on AMSAT's Upcoming Satellite Operations webpage for 
all of the latest announcements.
https://www.amsat.org/satellite-info/upcoming-satellite-operations/

In addition AMSAT's call sign, W3ZM, is popping up all over the U.S. 
in an effort to operate from all 50 States before this year's 50th 
Anniversary Symposium.  To make this happen, we need your help.  
Check out https://www.amsat.org/events/was-w3zm/ for more information.

[ANS thanks Robert Bankston, KE4AL for the above information.]

+ PSAT2 Simple Tracking for Wilderness Mobiles

For those hams wandering in the wilderness, Bob Bruninga, WB4APR says,
"You don't need no stinkin' computer!"  Bob has updated his Mobile 
LEO tracking site to show graphically how PSAT2 orbit
works at http://aprs.org/MobileLEOtracking.html.

Bob adds, "It's easy to remember.  Five minutes later per day, but a 
new orbit an hour and a half earlier every other day.  This is 
approximate but time will tell.

"If you are in the wilderness, just monitor 145.825 and when you hear
PSAT2, then you can easily guess all orbits in the future."

[ANS thanks Bob Bruninga, WB4APR for the above information.]


+ Walmart Parking Lots on the Air 2019

It’s like déjà vu all over again! The 2nd Annual WMPLOTA will take 
place starting July 6, 2019 at 00:00 UTC and ending July 7 at 
23:59 UTC.  WMPLOTA is now held annually on the first weekend 
in July.  The first weekend in July was chosen for WMPLOTA, putting 
it forevevermore in temporal proximity to July 2, the birthday of 
Walmart when Sam Walton opened the first store in Rogers, Arkansas 
in 1962.

WMPLOTA is a special event and award scheme for Amateur Radio 
satellite operators that encourages the practice of portable 
operation in the ubiqitous and easily accessible location of Walmart 
parking lots. 

Complete information including rules can be found at
www.wmplota.org or on Twitter at @WMPLOTA.

[ANS thanks wmplota.org for the above information.]


+ Looking for ARMADILLO

Members of the Texas Spacecraft Laboratory (TSL) are asking for help 
finding their CubeSat. Designed to collect data on submillimeter dust 
particles in low Earth orbit, it was built in collaboration with 
Baylor University. the ARMADILLO (Atmosphere Related Measurements and 
Detection of Submillimeter Objects) satellite was successfully 
orbited on Monday's Falcon Heavy STP-2 launch.

Students in Austin and Atlanta are looking for it but are struggling 
with station issues. ARMADILLO's frequency is 437.525 and is 
transmitting at 19200 baud.  Anyone willing to help are asked to 
contact Patel Shivani, KG5EAU.

More info at http://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-ARMADILLO

[ANS thanks Patel Shivani, KG5EAU for the above information.]


+ Raspberry Pi 4 Now Available

Raspberry.org announced the availability of Raspberry Pi 4. It is 
said to be a comprehensive upgrade touching almost every element of 
the platform. It claims to provide, for the first time, a PC-like 
level of performance for most users while retaining the interfacing 
capabilities and hackability of the classic Raspberry Pi line.

Highlights include:

* A 1.5GHz quad-core 64-bit ARM Cortex-A72 CPU (~3× performance)
* 1GB, 2GB, or 4GB of LPDDR4 SDRAM
* Full-throughput Gigabit Ethernet
* Dual-band 802.11ac wireless networking
* Bluetooth 5.0
* Two USB 3.0 and two USB 2.0 ports
* Dual monitor support, at resolutions up to 4K
* VideoCore VI graphics, supporting OpenGL ES 3.x
* 4Kp60 hardware decode of HEVC video
* Complete compatibility with earlier Raspberry Pi products

Complete information is available at 
https://tinyurl.com/ANS-181-Pi-4

 [ANS thanks RaspberryPi.org for the above information.]


+ 2020 Cubesat Developers Workshop Announced

The 2020 Cubesat Developers Workshop will be held May 4–6, 2020 at
the Cal Poly Performing Arts Center, San Luis Obispo, CA. 
Information can be had by contacting cubesat-workshop at calpoly.edu.

[ANS thanks Cubesat.org for the above information.]

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In addition to regular membership, AMSAT offers membership in the 
President's Club. Members of the President's Club, as sustaining
donors to AMSAT Project Funds, will be eligible to receive 
additional benefits. Application forms are available from the 
AMSAT office.

Primary and secondary school students are eligible for membership at
one-half the standard yearly rate. Post-secondary school students
enrolled in at least half time status shall be eligible for the 
student rate for a maximum of six post-secondary years in this 
status.

Contact Martha at the AMSAT office for additional student 
membership information.

73,
This week's ANS Editor,
Frank Karnauskas, N1UW
n1uw at amsat dot org

Sent via AMSAT-BB at amsat.org. AMSAT-NA makes this open forum 
available to all interested persons worldwide without requiring 
membership. Opinions expressed are solely those of the author 
and do not reflect the official views of AMSAT-NA.

Not an AMSAT member: Join now to support the amateur satellite 
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